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Sittman and Pitt of Brooklyn, New York developed a gambling machine in that was a precursor to the modern slot machine. It contained five drums holding a total of 50 card faces and was based on poker.

The machine proved extremely popular, and soon many bars in the city had one or more of them. Players would insert a nickel and pull a lever, which would spin the drums and the cards that they held, the player hoping for a good poker hand.

There was no direct payout mechanism, so a pair of kings might get the player a free beer, whereas a royal flush could pay out cigars or drinks; the prizes were wholly dependent upon what the establishment would offer.

To improve the odds for the house, two cards were typically removed from the deck , the ten of spades and the jack of hearts , doubling the odds against winning a royal flush.

The drums could also be rearranged to further reduce a player's chance of winning. Because of the vast number of possible wins in the original poker-based game, it proved practically impossible to make a machine capable of awarding an automatic payout for all possible winning combinations.

At some time between and , [6] Charles Fey of San Francisco, California devised a much simpler automatic mechanism [7] with three spinning reels containing a total of five symbols: horseshoes, diamonds, spades, hearts and a Liberty Bell ; the bell gave the machine its name.

By replacing ten cards with five symbols and using three reels instead of five drums, the complexity of reading a win was considerably reduced, allowing Fey to design an effective automatic payout mechanism.

Liberty Bell was a huge success and spawned a thriving mechanical gaming device industry. After a few years, the devices were banned in California, but Fey still could not keep up with demand for them from elsewhere.

The Liberty Bell machine was so popular that it was copied by many slot-machine manufacturers. The first of these, also called the "Liberty Bell", was produced by the manufacturer Herbert Mills in By , many "bell" machines had been installed in most cigar stores, saloons, bowling alleys, brothels and barber shops.

The first Liberty Bell machines produced by Mills used the same symbols on the reels as did Charles Fey's original.

Soon afterward, another version was produced with patriotic symbols, such as flags and wreaths, on the wheels. Later, a similar machine called the Operator's Bell was produced that included the option of adding a gum -vending attachment.

As the gum offered was fruit-flavored, fruit symbols were placed on the reels: lemons, cherries, oranges and plums. A bell was retained, and a picture of a stick of Bell-Fruit Gum, the origin of the bar symbol, was also present.

This set of symbols proved highly popular and was used by other companies that began to make their own slot machines: Caille, Watling, Jennings and Pace.

A commonly used technique to avoid gambling laws in a number of states was to award food prizes. For this reason, a number of gumball and other vending machines were regarded with mistrust by the courts.

The two Iowa cases of State v. Ellis [11] and State v. Striggles [12] are both used in criminal law classes to illustrate the concept of reliance upon authority as it relates to the axiomatic ignorantia juris non excusat "ignorance of the law is no excuse".

Despite the display of the result of the next use on the machine, the courts ruled that "[t]he machine appealed to the player's propensity to gamble, and that is [a] vice.

In , Bally developed the first fully electromechanical slot machine called Money Honey although earlier machines such as Bally's High Hand draw-poker machine had exhibited the basics of electromechanical construction as early as Its electromechanical workings made Money Honey the first slot machine with a bottomless hopper and automatic payout of up to coins without the help of an attendant.

The prototype was mounted in a full-size, show-ready slot-machine cabinet. The first production units went on trial at the Las Vegas Hilton Hotel.

After some modifications to defeat cheating attempts, the video slot machine was approved by the Nevada State Gaming Commission and eventually found popularity on the Las Vegas Strip and in downtown casinos.

Fortune Coin Co. Depending on the machine, the player can insert cash or, in " ticket-in, ticket-out " machines, a paper ticket with a barcode , into a designated slot on the machine.

The machine is then activated by means of a lever or button either physical or on a touchscreen , which activates reels that spin and stop to rearrange the symbols.

If a player matches a winning combination of symbols, the player earns credits based on the paytable. Symbols vary depending on the theme of the machine.

Classic symbols include objects such as fruits, bells, and stylized lucky sevens. Most slot games have a theme, such as a specific aesthetic , location, or character.

Symbols and other bonus features of the game are typically aligned with the theme. Some themes are licensed from popular media franchises , including films, television series including game shows such as Wheel of Fortune , entertainers, and musicians.

Multi-line slot machines have become more popular since the s. These machines have more than one payline, meaning that visible symbols that are not aligned on the main horizontal may be considered as winning combinations.

Traditional three-reel slot machines commonly have one, three, or five paylines while video slot machines may have 9, 15, 25, or as many as different paylines.

Most accept variable numbers of credits to play, with 1 to 15 credits per line being typical. The higher the amount bet, the higher the payout will be if the player wins.

One of the main differences between video slot machines and reel machines is in the way payouts are calculated.

With reel machines, the only way to win the maximum jackpot is to play the maximum number of coins usually three, sometimes four or even five coins per spin.

With video machines, the fixed payout values are multiplied by the number of coins per line that is being bet. In other words: on a reel machine, the odds are more favorable if the gambler plays with the maximum number of coins available.

Multi-way games may be configured to allow players to bet by-reel: for example, on a game with a 3x5 pattern often referred to as a way game , playing one reel allows all three symbols in the first reel to potentially pay, but only the center row pays on the remaining reels often designated by darkening the unused portions of the reels.

Other multi-way games use a 4x5 or 5x5 pattern, where there are up to five symbols in each reel, allowing for up to 1, and 3, ways to win respectively.

A variation involves patterns where symbols pay adjacent to one another. Most of these games have a hexagonal reel formation, and much like multi-way games, any patterns not played are darkened out of use.

The latter are typically known as "high limit" machines, and machines configured to allow for such wagers are often located in dedicated areas which may have a separate team of attendants to cater to the needs of those who play there.

The machine automatically calculates the number of credits the player receives in exchange for the cash inserted. Newer machines often allow players to choose from a selection of denominations on a splash screen or menu.

A bonus is a special feature of the particular game theme, which is activated when certain symbols appear in a winning combination. Bonuses and the number of bonus features vary depending upon the game.

In other bonus rounds, the player is presented with several items on a screen from which to choose. As the player chooses items, a number of credits is revealed and awarded.

Some bonuses use a mechanical device, such as a spinning wheel, that works in conjunction with the bonus to display the amount won. A candle is a light on top of the slot machine.

It flashes to alert the operator that change is needed, hand pay is requested or a potential problem with the machine. It can be lit by the player by pressing the "service" or "help" button.

A coin hopper is a container where the coins that are immediately available for payouts are held. When a certain preset coin capacity is reached, a coin diverter automatically redirects, or "drops", excess coins into a "drop bucket" or "drop box".

Unused coin hoppers can still be found even on games that exclusively employ Ticket-In, Ticket-Out technology, as a vestige.

The credit meter is a display of the amount of money or number of credits on the machine. On mechanical slot machines, this is usually a seven-segment display , but video slot machines typically use stylized text that suits the game's theme and user interface.

The drop bucket or drop box is a container located in a slot machine's base where excess coins are diverted from the hopper. Typically, a drop bucket is used for low-denomination slot machines and a drop box is used for high-denomination slot machines.

A drop box contains a hinged lid with one or more locks whereas a drop bucket does not contain a lid. The contents of drop buckets and drop boxes are collected and counted by the casino on a scheduled basis.

Free spins are a common form of bonus, where a series of spins are automatically played at no charge at the player's current wager. Free spins are usually triggered via a scatter of at least three designated symbols with the number of spins dependent on the number of symbols that land.

Some games allow the free spins bonus to "retrigger", which adds additional spins on top of those already awarded. There is no theoretical limit to the number of free spins obtainable.

Some games may have other features that can also trigger over the course of free spins. A hand pay refers to a payout made by an attendant or at an exchange point "cage" , rather than by the slot machine itself.

A hand pay occurs when the amount of the payout exceeds the maximum amount that was preset by the slot machine's operator.

Usually, the maximum amount is set at the level where the operator must begin to deduct taxes. A hand pay could also be necessary as a result of a short pay.

Hopper fill slip is a document used to record the replenishment of the coin in the coin hopper after it becomes depleted as a result of making payouts to players.

The slip indicates the amount of coin placed into the hoppers, as well as the signatures of the employees involved in the transaction, the slot machine number and the location and the date.

MEAL book M achine e ntry a uthorization l og is a log of the employee's entries into the machine. Low-level or slant-top slot machines include a stool so the player may sit down.

Stand-up or upright slot machines are played while standing. Optimal play is a payback percentage based on a gambler using the optimal strategy in a skill-based slot machine game.

Payline is a line that crosses through one symbol on each reel, along which a winning combination is evaluated.

Classic spinning reel machines usually have up to nine paylines, while video slot machines may have as many as one hundred. Paylines could be of various shapes horizontal, vertical, oblique, triangular, zigzag, etc.

Persistent state refers to passive features on some slot machines, some of which able to trigger bonus payouts or other special features if certain conditions are met over time by players on that machine.

Roll-up is the process of dramatizing a win by playing sounds while the meters count up to the amount that has been won.

Short pay refers to a partial payout made by a slot machine, which is less than the amount due to the player.

This occurs if the coin hopper has been depleted as a result of making earlier payouts to players.

The remaining amount due to the player is either paid as a hand pay or an attendant will come and refill the machine.

A scatter is a pay combination based on occurrences of a designated symbol landing anywhere on the reels, rather than falling in sequence on the same payline.

A scatter pay usually requires a minimum of three symbols to land, and the machine may offer increased prizes or jackpots depending on the number that land.

Scatters are frequently used to trigger bonus games, such as free spins with the number of spins multiplying based on the number of scatter symbols that land.

The scatter symbol usually cannot be matched using wilds, and some games may require the scatter symbols to appear on consecutive reels in order to pay.

On some multiway games, scatter symbols still pay in unused areas. Taste is a reference to the small amount often paid out to keep a player seated and continuously betting.

Only rarely will machines fail to pay even the minimum out over the course of several pulls. Tilt is a term derived from electromechanical slot machines' " tilt switches ", which would make or break a circuit when they were tilted or otherwise tampered with that triggered an alarm.

While modern machines no longer have tilt switches, any kind of technical fault door switch in the wrong state, reel motor failure, out of paper, etc.

A theoretical hold worksheet is a document provided by the manufacturer for every slot machine that indicates the theoretical percentage the machine should hold based on the amount paid in.

The worksheet also indicates the reel strip settings, number of coins that may be played, the payout schedule, the number of reels and other information descriptive of the particular type of slot machine.

Volatility or variance refers to the measure of risk associated with playing a slot machine. A low-volatility slot machine has regular but smaller wins, while a high-variance slot machine has fewer but bigger wins.

Weight count is an American term referring to the total value of coins or tokens removed from a slot machine's drop bucket or drop box for counting by the casino's hard count team through the use of a weigh scale.

Wild symbols substitute for most other symbols in the game similarly to a joker card , usually excluding scatter and jackpot symbols or offering a lower prize on non-natural combinations that include wilds.

How jokers behave are dependent on the specific game and whether the player is in a bonus or free games mode. Sometimes wild symbols may only appear on certain reels, or have a chance to "stack" across the entire reel.

Each machine has a table that lists the number of credits the player will receive if the symbols listed on the pay table line up on the pay line of the machine.

Some symbols are wild and can represent many, or all, of the other symbols to complete a winning line. Especially on older machines, the pay table is listed on the face of the machine, usually above and below the area containing the wheels.

On video slot machines, they are usually contained within a help menu, along with information on other features. Historically, all slot machines used revolving mechanical reels to display and determine results.

Although the original slot machine used five reels, simpler, and therefore more reliable, three reel machines quickly became the standard.

This limited the manufacturer's ability to offer large jackpots since even the rarest event had a likelihood of 0. Although the number of symbols eventually increased to about 22, allowing 10, combinations, [20] this still limited jackpot sizes as well as the number of possible outcomes.

In the s, however, slot machine manufacturers incorporated electronics into their products and programmed them to weight particular symbols.

Thus the odds of losing symbols appearing on the payline became disproportionate to their actual frequency on the physical reel.

A symbol would only appear once on the reel displayed to the player, but could, in fact, occupy several stops on the multiple reel. In Inge Telnaes received a patent for a device titled, "Electronic Gaming Device Utilizing a Random Number Generator for Selecting the Reel Stop Positions" US Patent , [21] which states: "It is important to make a machine that is perceived to present greater chances of payoff than it actually has within the legal limitations that games of chance must operate.

With microprocessors now ubiquitous, the computers inside modern slot machines allow manufacturers to assign a different probability to every symbol on every reel.

To the player it might appear that a winning symbol was "so close", whereas in fact the probability is much lower. In the s in the U.

These used a number of features to ensure the payout was controlled within the limits of the gambling legislation. As a coin was inserted into the machine, it could go either directly into the cashbox for the benefit of the owner or into a channel that formed the payout reservoir, with the microprocessor monitoring the number of coins in this channel.

The drums themselves were driven by stepper motors, controlled by the processor and with proximity sensors monitoring the position of the drums.

A "look-up table" within the software allows the processor to know what symbols were being displayed on the drums to the gambler.

This allowed the system to control the level of payout by stopping the drums at positions it had determined. If the payout channel had filled up, the payout became more generous; if nearly empty, the payout became less so thus giving good control of the odds.

Video slot machines do not use mechanical reels, instead of using graphical reels on a computerized display. As there are no mechanical constraints on the design of video slot machines, games often use at least five reels, and may also use non-standard layouts.

This tapping should be continued until the parallels cannot be moved by hand. After the workpiece is set, additional tightening of the vise should not be attempted, as such tightening has a tendency to raise the work off the parallels.

Correct selection of parallels is illustrated in Figure Whenever possible, the workpiece should be clamped in the center of the vise jaws.

However, when necessary to mill a short workpiece which must be held at the end of the vise, a spacing block of the same thickness as the piece should be placed at the opposite end of the jaws.

This will avoid strain on the movable jaw and prevent the piece from slipping. If the workpiece is so thin that it is impossible to let it extend over the top of the vise, hold down straps are generally used.

By means of these tapered surfaces, the workpiece is forced downward into the parallels, holding them firmly and leaving the top of the workpiece fully exposed to the milling cutter.

Indexing is the process of evenly dividing the circumference of a circular workpiece into equally spaced divisions, such as in cutting gear teeth, cutting splines, milling grooves in reamers and taps, and spacing holes on a circle.

The index head of the indexing fixture is used for this purpose. The index head of the indexing fixture Figure contains an indexing mechanism which is used to control the rotation of the index head spindle to space or divide a workpiece accurately.

A simple indexing mechanism consists of a tooth worm wheel fastened to the index head spindle, a single-cut worm, a crank for turning the wormshaft, and an index plate and sector.

The indexing plate Figure is a round plate with a series of six or more circles of equally spaced holes; the index pin on the crank can be inserted in any hole in any circle.

With the interchangeable plates regularly furnished with most index heads, the spacing necessary for most gears, boltheads, milling cutters, splines, and so forth can be obtained.

The following sets of plates are standard equipment:. Cincinnati type consists of one plate drilled on both sides with circles divided as follows:.

The sector Figure indicates the next hole in which the pin is to be inserted and makes it unnecessary to count holes when moving the index crank after each cut.

It consists of two radial, beveled arms which can be set at any angle to each other and then moved together around the center of the index plate.

Since the circle illustrated has 20 holes, turn the crank one full turn plus five spaces after each cut, Set the sector arms to include the desired fractional part of a turn or five spaces between the beveled edges of its arms, as shown.

If the first cut is taken with the index pin against the left-hand arm, to take the next cut, move the pin once against the right-hand arm of the sector.

Before taking the second cut, move the arms so that the left-hand arm is again against the pin; this moves the right-hand arm another five spaces ahead of the pin.

Then take the second cut, and repeat the operation until all the cuts have been completed. NOTE: It is good practice always to index clockwise on the plate to eliminate backlash.

Suppose it is desired to mill a project with eight equally spaced teeth. The same principle applies whether or not the divisions required divide equally into These examples may be multiplied indefinitely and from them the following rule is derived: to determine the number of turns of the index crank needed to obtain one division of any number of equal divisions on the workpiece, divide 40 by the number of equal divisions desired provided the worm wheel has 40 teeth, which is standard practice.

The construction of some index heads permits the worm to be disengaged from the worm wheel, making possible a quicker method of indexing called direct indexing.

The index head is provided with a knob which, when turned through part of a revolution, operates an eccentric and disengages the worm.

Direct indexing is accomplished by an additional index plate fastened to the index head spindle. A stationary plunger in the index head fits the holes in this index plate.

By moving this plate by hand to index directly, the spindle and the workpiece rotate an equal distance. Direct index plates usually have 24 holes and offer a quick means of milling squares, hexagons, taps, and so forth.

Any number of divisions which is a factor of 24 can be indexed quickly and conveniently by the direct indexing method. Sometimes, a number of divisions is required which cannot be obtained by simple indexing with the index plates regularly supplied.

To obtain these divisions, a differential index head is used. The index crank is connected to the wormshaft by a train of gears instead of a direct coupling as with simple indexing.

The selection of these gears involves calculations similar to those used in calculating change gear ratio for lathe thread cutting. Workpieces can be indexed in degrees as well as fractions of a turn with the usual index head.

Workpieces can therefore be indexed in degrees by using a circle of holes divisible by 9. For example, moving the crank 2 spaces on an hole circle, 3 spaces on a hole circle, or 4 spaces on a hole circle will rotate the spindle 1 degree.

The following examples show how the index plate is used to obtain any desired part of a whole spindle turn by plain indexing.

Milling a hexagon. Take the denominator which is 3 into which of the available hole circles it can be evenly divided. In this case, 3 can be divided into the available hole circle exactly 6 times.

Use this result 6 as a multiplier to generate the proportional fraction required. Example: Therefore, 6 full turns of the crank plus 12 spaces on an hole circle is the correct indexing for 6 divisions.

Cutting a gear. To cut a gear of 52 teeth, using the rule again, divide 40 by Take the denominator of the lowest term 13, and determine into which of the available hole circles it can be evenly divided.

In this case, 13 can be divided into a hole circle exactly 3 times. Use this result 3 as a multiplier to generate the proportional fraction required.

Example: Therefore, 30 holes on a hole circle is the correct indexing for 52 divisions. When counting holes, start with the first hole ahead of the index pin.

The success of any milling operation depends, Before setting up a job, be sure that the to a great extent, upon judgment in setting up the job, workpiece, the table, the taper in the spindle, selecting the proper milling cutter, and holding the cutter by the best means under the circumstances Some fundamental practices have been proved by experience to be necessary for and the arbor or cutter shank are all clean and good results on all jobs.

Some of these practices are mentioned below Before setting up a job, be sure that the workpiece, table, the taper in the spindle, and the arbor or cutter shank are free from chips, nicks, or burrs.

Face milling. Machining flat surfaces which are at right angles to the axis of the cutter. Explanatory names, such as sawing, slotting, gear cutting, and so forth have been given to special operations.

Routing is a term applied to milling an irregular outline while controlling the workpiece movement by hand feed. Grooving reamers and taps is called fluting.

Gang milling is the term applied to an operation in which two or more milling cutters are used together on one arbor. Straddle milling is the term given to an operation in which two milling cutters are used to straddle the workpiece and mill both sides at the same time.

The speed of milling is the distance in FPM at which the circumference of the cutter passes over the work.

The spindle RPM necessary to give a desired peripheral speed depends on the size of the milling cutter. The best speed is determined by the kind of material being cut and the size and type of cutter used, width and depth of cut, finish required, type of cutting fluid and method of application, and power and speed available are factors relating to cutter speed.

There are no hard and fast rules governing the speed of milling cutters; experience has shown that the following factors must be considered in regulating speed:.

A metal slitting saw milling cutter can be rotated faster than a plain milling cutter having a broad face.

The approximate values given in Table in Appendix A may be used as a guide for selecting the proper cutting speed.

If the operator finds that the machine, the milling cutter, or the workpiece cannot be handled suitably at these speeds, immediate readjustments should be made.

Table lists speeds for high-speed steel milling cutters. If carbon steel cutters are used, the speed should be about one-half the recommended speed in the table.

If carbide-tipped cutters are used, the speed can be doubled. If a plentiful supply of cutting oil is applied to the milling cutter and the workpiece, speeds can be increased 50 to percent.

For roughing cuts, a moderate speed and coarse feed often give best results; for finishing cuts, the best practice is to reverse these conditions, using a higher speed and lighter feed.

For example, the spindle speed for machining a piece of steel at a speed of 35 SFPM with a cutter 2 inches in diameter is calculated as follows:.

Table in Appendix A is provided to facilitate spindle speed computations for standard cutting speeds and standard milling cutters.

The rate of feed, or the speed at which the workpiece passes the cutter, determines the time required for cutting a job. In selecting the feed.

Forces are exerted against the workpiece, the cutter, and their holding devices during the cutting process. The force exerted varies directly with the amount of feed and depth of cut, and in turn are dependent upon the rigidity and power of the machine.

Milling machines are limited by the power they can develop to turn the cutter and the amount of vibration they can resist when using coarse feeds and deep cuts.

The feed and depth of the cut also depend upon the type of milling cutter being used. For example, deep cuts or coarse feeds should not be attempted when using a small diameter end milling cutter.

Coarse cutters with strong cutting teeth can be fed at a faster rate because the chips may be washed out more easily by the cutting oil.

Coarse feeds and deep cuts should not be used on a frail workpiece if the piece is mounted in such a way that its holding device is not able to prevent springing or bending.

Experience and judgment are extremely valuable in selecting the correct milling feeds. Even though suggested rate tables are given.

Feeds are governed by many variable factors, such as the degree of finish required. Using a coarse feed, the metal is removed more rapidly but the appearance and accuracy of the surface produced may not reach the standard desired for the finished product.

Because of this fact, finer feeds and increased speeds are used for finer, more accurate finishes, while for roughing, to use a comparatively low speed and heavy feed.

More mistakes are made on overspeeding and underfeeding than on underspeeding and overfeeding. Overspeeding may be detected by the occurrence of a squeaking, scraping sound.

If vibration referred to as chattering occurs in the milling machine during the cutting process, the speed should be reduced and the feed increased.

Too much cutter clearance, a poorly supported workpiece, or a badly worn machine gear are common causes of chattering. The feed of the milling machine may be designated in inches per minute or millimeters per minute The milling feed is determined by multiplying the chip size chip per tooth desired see Table in Appendix A , the number of teeth on the cutter, d the revolutions per minute of the cutter.

It is usually regarded as standard practice to feed the workpicce against the milling cutter. When the workpiece is fed against the milling cutter, the teeth cut under any scale on the workpiece surface and any backlash in the feed screw is taken up by the force of the cut.

As an exception to this recommendation, it is advisable to feed with the milling cutter when cutting off stock or when milling comparatively deep or long slots.

The direction of cutter rotation is related to the manner in which the workpiece is held. The cutter should rotate so that the piece springs away from the cutter; then there will be no tendency for the force of the cut to loosen the piece.

No milling cutter should ever be rotated backward; this will break the teeth. If it is necessary to stop the machine during a finishing cut, the power feed should never be thrown out, nor should the workpiece be fed back under the cutter unless the cutter is stopped or the workpiece lowered.

Never change feeds while the cutter is rotating. The major advantage of using a coolant or cutting oil is that it dissipates heat, giving longer life to the cutting edges of the teeth.

The oil also lubricates the cutter face and flushes away the chips, consequently reducing the possibility of marring the finish.

Cutting oils are basically water-based soluble oils, petroleum oils, and synthetic oils. Water-based coolants have excellent heat transfer qualities; other oils result in good surface finishes.

The cutting oil compounds for various metals are given in Table in Appendix A. In general, a simple coolant is all that is required for roughing.

Finishing requires a cutting oil with good lubricating properties to help produce a good finish on the workpiece. Plastics and cast iron are almost always machined dry.

The cutting oil or coolant should be directed by means of coolant drip can, pump system, or coolant mist mix to the point where the cutter contacts the workpiece.

Regardless of method used, the cutting oil should be allowed to flow freely over the workpiece and cutter. Plain milling, also called surface milling or slab milling, is milling flat surfaces with the milling cutter axis parallel to the surface being milled.

Generally, plain milling is done with the workpiece surface mounted parallel to the surface of the milling machine table and the milling cutter mounted on a standard milling machine arbor.

The arbor is well supported in a horizontal plane between the milling machine spindle and one or more arbor supports.

The workpiece is generally clamped directly to the table or supported in a vise for plain milling.

The milling machine table should be checked for alignment before starting to cut. If the workpiece surface to be milled is at an angle to the base plane of the piece, the workpiece should be mounted in a universal vise or on an adjustable angle plate.

The holding device should be adjusted so that the workpiece surface is parallel to the table of the milling machine.

A careful study of the drawing must be made to determine what cutter is best suited for the job. Flat surfaces may be milled with a plain milling cutter mounted on an arbor.

Deeper cuts may generally be taken when using narrow cutters than with wide cutters. The choice of milling cutters should be based on the size and shape of the workpiece.

If a wide area is to be milled, fewer traverses will be required using a wide cutter. If large quantities of metal are to be removed, a coarse tooth cutter should be used for roughing and a finer tooth cutter should be used for finishing.

A relatively slow cutting speed and fast table feed should be used for roughing, and a relatively fast cutting speed and slow table feed used for finishing.

The surface should be checked for accuracy after each completed cut. A typical setup for plain milling is illustrated in Figure Note that the milling cutter is positioned on the arbor with sleeves so that it is as close as practical to the milling machine spindle while maintaining sufficient clearance between the vise and the milling machine column.

This practice reduces torque in the arbor and permits more rigid support for the cutter. Angular milling, or angle milling, is milling flat surfaces which are neither parallel nor perpendicular to the axis of the milling cutter.

A single angle milling cutter is used for angular surfaces, such as chamfers, serration's, and grooves. Milling dovetails Figure is a typical example of angular milling.

When cutting dovetails on the milling machine, the workpiece may be held in a vise, clamped to the table, or clamped to an angle plate.

The tongue or groove is first roughed out using a side milling cutter, after which the angular sides and base are finished with an angle milling cutter.

In general practice, the dovetail is laid out on the workpiece surface before the milling operation is started.

To do this, the required outline should be inscribed and the line prick-punched. These lines and punch marks may then be used as a guide during the cutting operation.

When two or more parallel vertical surfaces are machined at a single cut, the operation is called straddle milling. Straddle milling is accomplished by mounting two side milling cutters on the same arbor, set apart at an exact spacing.

Two sides of the workpiece are machined simultaneously and final width dimensions are exactly controlled. Straddle milling has many useful applications in production machining.

Parallel slots of equal depth can be milled by using straddle mills of equal diameters. Figure illustrates a typical example of straddle milling.

In this case a hexagon is being cut, but the same operation may be applied to cutting squares or splines on the end of a cylindrical workpiece.

The workpiece is usually mounted between centers in the indexing fixture or mounted vertically in a swivel vise.

The two side milling cutters are separated by spacers, washers, and shims so that the distance between the cutting teeth of each cutter is exactly equal to the width of the workpiece area required.

Face milling is the milling of surfaces that are perpendicular to the cutter axis, as shown in Figure Face milling produces flat surfaces and machines work to the required length.

In face milling, the feed can be either horizontal or vertical. In face milling, the teeth on the periphery of the cutter do practically all of the cutting.

However, when the cutter is properly ground, the face teeth actually remove a small amount of stock which is left as a result of the springing of the workpiece or cutter, thereby producing a finer finish.

It is important in face milling to have the cutter securely mounted and to see that all end play or sloppiness in the machine spindle is eliminated.

When face milling, the workpiece may be clamped to the table or angle plate or supported in a vise, fixture, or jig.

Large surfaces are generally face milled on a vertical milling machine with the workpiece clamped directly to the milling machine table to simplify handling and clamping operations.

Angular surfaces can also be face milled on a swivel cutter head milling machine Figure In this case, the workpiece is mounted parallel to the table and the cutter head is swiveled to bring the end milling cutter perpendicular to the surface to be produced.

During face milling operations, the workpiece should be fed against the milling cutter so that the pressure of the cut is downward, thereby holding the piece against the table.

Whenever possible, the edge of the workpiece should be in line with the center of the cutter. This position of the workpiece in relation to the cutter will help eliminate slippage.

When setting the depth of cut, the workpiece should be brought up to just touch the revolving cutter. After a cut has been made from this setting, measurement of the workpiece is taken.

At this point, the graduated dial on the traverse feed is locked and used as a guide in determining the depth of cut.

When starting the cut, the workpiece should be moved so that the cutter is nearly in contact with its edge, after which the automatic feed may be engaged.

When a cut is started by hand, care must be taken to avoid pushing the corner of the workpiece between the teeth of the cutter too quickly, as this may result in cutter tooth breakage.

In order to avoid wasting time during the operation, the feed trips should be adjusted to stop the table travel just as the cutter clears the workpiece.

Gang milling is the term applied to an operation in which two or more milling cutters are mounted on the same arbor and used when cutting horizontal surfaces.

All cutters may perform the same type of operation or each cutter may perform a different type of operation. For example, several workpieces need a slot, a flat surface, and an angular groove.

The best method to cut these would be gang milling as shown in Figure All the completed workpieces would be the same. Remember to check the cutters carefully for proper size.

Form milling is the process of machining special contours composed of curves and straight lines, or entirely of curves, at a single cut.

This is done with formed milling cutters, shaped to the contour to be cut. The more common form milling operations involve milling half-round recesses and beads and quarter-round radii on workpieces Figure This operation is accomplished by using convex, concave, and corner rounding milling cutters ground to the desired circle diameter.

Other jobs for formed milling cutters include milling intricate patterns on workpieces and milling several complex surfaces in a single cut such as are produced by gang milling.

Fly cutting, which is also called single point milling, is one of the most versatile milling operations. It is done with a single-point cutting tool shaped like a lathe tool bit.

It is held and rotated by a fly cutter arbor. You can grind this cutter to almost any form that you need, as shown in Figure Formed cutters are expensive.

There are times when you need a special form cutter for a very limited number of parts. It is more economical to grind the desired form on a lathe-type tool bit than to buy a preground form cutter, which is very expensive and usually suitable only for one particular job.

The single-point or fly cutter can be used to great advantage in gear cutting. All that is needed is enough of the broken gear to grind the cutting tool to the proper shape.

It can also be used in the cutting of splines and standard and special forms. Another type of fly cutter, which differs mainly in the design of the arbor, can be used to mill flat surfaces as in plain or face milling Figure The arbor can easily be manufactured in the shop using common lathe tool bits.

This type of fly cutter is especially useful for milling flat surfaces on aluminum and other soft nonferrous metals, since a high quality finish can be easily obtained.

Boring holes with this type of fly cutter is not recommended. The arbor is so short that only very shallow holes can be bored.

Keyways are grooves of different shapes cut along the axis of the cylindrical surface of shafts, into which keys are fitted to provide a positive method of locating and driving members on the shafts.

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